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هنر صلح - ایکیو، نیکیو، سانکیو، یونکیو - تکنیک های کنترل اوکه

The Art of Peace

ایکیو، نیکیو، سانکیو، یونکیو - تکنیک های کنترل اوکه

نویسنده :هاشم مرادمند
تاریخ:پنجشنبه 26 اسفند 1395-07:01 ق.ظ


Ikkyo
ایکیو همانگونه که از نامش بر می آید دریچه ای به سوی آیکیدو و نخستین تکنیک آن است. دست کم برای تکنیک های کنترلی آن از قبیل نیکیو، سانکیو و یونکیو. همانگونه که اجرای تکنیک ایکیو توسط شما توسعه و بهبود می یابد، مجموعه تکنیکهای آیکیدوی شما نیز تحت تاثیر قرار خواهد گرفت. بنابراین ایکیو هرگز خسته کننده و کسالت بار نخواهد گردید. به مانند همه تکنیک ها هیچ قاعده دقیق و مشخصی برای اجرای ایکیو وجود ندارد و متناسب با تمرین و مهارت آیکیدوکار و نیز تفسیر وی از آیکیدو تکنیک به تکامل خواهد رسید.


Nikkyo

نیکیو "دومین تکنیک" و یکی از اصلی ترین تکنیک های کنترلی آیکیدو است. این تکنیک شامل پیچاندن مچ است و در صورت اعمال فشار میتواند کمی دردناک باشد. برای تمرینات معمول در دوجو می بایست به منظور جلوگیری از آسیب دیدگی مچ دست از انجام بیش از حد این تکنیک اجتناب کرد. برای بهبود این تکنیک میتوان بر دقت و درستی اجرای آن به جای اعمال فشار تمرکز نمود.    

به نوعی می توان نیکیو را با تکنیک های شمشیر "کوته"مقایسه نمود.ضربه زدن به مچ حریف در برخی کاربرد های نیکیو بیشتر از سایر تکنیک ها مشاهده میگردد. به هر حال توجه نمودن به شباهت "کوته" و نیکیو می تواند به اجرای دقیق و موثرتر آن کمک نماید.

به هنگام پیچاندن مچ دست حریف در نیکیو، شما می بایست دست اوکه را کاملا روی ناحیه گودی زیر ترقوه خود فشار دهید بنابراین زاویه ای میان دست و بازوی اوکه ایجاد خواهد گردید.این زاویه مچ را تحت فشار قرار داده و ضعیف خواهد نمود. دست اوکه باید تا شود در غیر این صورت شما می بایست با قرار دادن دست خود پشت بازوی حریف و کشیدن آن به سوی خود این حالت را ایجاد نمایید. به یاد داشته باشید دست اوکه را طوری در دست خود بگیرید که شست شما دقیقا پشت شست حریف قرار بگیرد.     

فشار را در راستای مرکز اوکه اعمال کنید.هرچه بیشتر به این مهم توجه نمایید نیکیو شما بهتر اجرا خواهد گردید. فشار را تا زمانیکه حداقل یک زانوی اوکه روی زمین قرار بگیرد ادامه دهید.این برای اطمینان از عدم برخواستن اوکه است و در نهایت فشار را برداشته و عمل مهار حریف را انجام دهید. در برخی حمله ها استفاده از تکنیک نیکیو دشوار است. اما برای حملات از قبیل گرفتن شانه "کاتادوری" و یقه گیری "موندوری" بدلیل حالت گرفتن و استقامت مچ اوکه، مناسب است.

Sankyo Sankyo

Sankyo, "the third technique", is one of the basic pinning techniques of aikido. It contains a wrist twist that can be quite painful, if done with too much force. For regular training in the dojo, it is important not to overdo the sankyo, or members of the dojo will soon get their wrists damaged.

       To improve your sankyo, work on how you control the whole of uke's body, instead of just twisting uke's wrist to induce pain.

       Sankyo is slightly related to the sword technique yokogiri or do, the horizontal cut. The relation is not that obvious, but thinking of it can help you develop your sankyo, especially regarding your steps and how you position yourself compared to uke, the attacker.

       The wrist twist is not complicated, but it is tricky to do sankyo in such a way that you keep control of your partner, all through. Some things are necessary to pay attention to, in order to control uke sufficiently.

       What I feel to be most important is the angle of uke's arm. If it is much bent at the elbow, then uke is too close to tori, and it is quite easy for uke to get out of the sankyo wrist twist - simply by lowering the elbow. Uke's elbow should be almost straight, that is the same arch as in "the unbendable arm", the basic extension of the arm that is common for most Japanese martial arts. Uke has it in most attack forms, whether gripping or striking, as in shomenuchi.

shomenuchi attack

       When uke's arm is extended like this, all through the sankyo pinning and take-down, tori should be able to control uke in a trustworthy way. I also find it best to keep uke's arm at shoulder height, all through the technique. If tori brings it down, then uke regains control and can resist. When you apply the sankyo wrist twist, uke's arm is extended 90° from the body, and that angle is kept all the way to the floor.

       I like to think of sankyo as forming a bridge between uke's center and my own, where our bodies are the pillars of that bridge, and uke's arm is the span. This helps in gaining control of the whole of uke's body, and in keeping uke's arm extended.

       Uke's hand should be at a 90° angle to the lower arm in the sankyo wrist twist, as well as in the pinning at the end - whether it is done standing up or seated. If uke's hand is in line with the arm, then the wrist twist is not very efficient.

       Sankyo can be done both omote and ura. Omote can either be done as little more than an ikkyo with a sankyo grip on uke's hand, or more elaborately, with a distinct application of the wrist twist, and so on. Because of these different approaches, I only show ura in the videos below. Also, tori can do the end pinning standing up or seated. Uke, of course, is always flat on the floor at the end pinning. In the videos below I only show the pinning standing up.


Yonkyo Yonkyo

Yonkyo, "the fourth technique", is one of the basic pinning techniques (katamewaza) of aikido. Within aikido circles, it is regarded with something of an awe, because of the distinct pain it induces.

       Not all people are sensitive to the yonkyo technique. Some feel very little of the pain, some don't feel it at all. My former teacher Ichimura sensei said that about one out of five are "immune" to it. In my experience, though, it's far less than that. Through all my years of aikido, I have just come across one or two people who don't feel it at all. All the others feel the pain - more or less - and react to it.


       Of course, the aikido student quickly gets used to it, and can withstand the pain, thereby even block the technique. That's of little meaning, but it is still valuable to learn how to deal with such a situation. The yonkyo pressure-pain should be used as a way of breaking uke's balance, to distract him or her. It should not be trusted as a method to control uke by the use of pain.

       To create that reaction, I prefer a yonkyo pressure that is sudden and surprising - quite like any atemi, distracting strike. Actually, the yonkyo pressure should be regarded as an atemi, and done in that way.


Finding it

Aikido students usually have trouble finding the spot on which to apply the pressure, and also how to apply one's grip on uke's wrist. Some precision is needed.
The swordgrip.        The grip is actually quite the same as the sword grip. The hand positions are twisted inwards, the power of the grip is in the little finger. If you grab uke's wrist in much the same way as you should grab a sword, you are on the right track.

       It is the base knuckle of your front hand index finger that is doing the yonkyo pressure. Still, don't let go of the little finger grip of uke's wrist - that will just lessen the effect. Again, it's how you would manoeuver a sword, for example when pressing the tip of the sword down.

       The base knuckle of your index finger presses into the flesh of the inside of uke's wrist, and then turns outward to the lower arm bone on the thumb side of uke's arm. It is this turning that causes the pain, not the initial pressure.

       Make it tight and sudden, and don't let go of your little finger grip of uke's wrist. Additional pressure is best done by increasing the force of the little finger grip - the index finger knuckle is almost passive.

       You get additional effect if your other hand turns uke's wrist the other way, so that your both hands are turning in opposite directions, away from each other. That way, your index finger knuckle and uke's lower arm bone will move towards each other.

       Another important detail is to apply the pressure when uke's arm is held so that the upper and the lower arm are approximately at a 90° angle to each other. That makes uke's wrist more sensitive to the technique. If uke's arm is straight, its muscles tend to protect it from the yonkyo.

       Don't trust the pain the technique induces. Pain is a relative thing, and some pains are easy to get used to. Use the pain as an atemi, a distracting strike that gets uke out of balance, so that it is easy for you to push uke down.




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